Considering what's already been said in this thread, "the Naruto Timeline" thread, and bit's of what we know about Uzumaki's i decided that this is my theory... (for now ).
Uzumaki's longevity might not be something that just happened on it's own, but rather came form either the Senju, or closer descendant's of the younger son. In other words, everyone who had relations to the younger son and SO6P also had incredible logevity. I know this is a bit far fetched, but considering that we haven't seen any of the Senju live happily ever after, and that "liveforce" should technicaly mean long life. I think that this is worth considering.
Another reason why i think it's true, is because it could easily explain the "timeline problem". (beyond of course, a simple mistake)
Everyone who has followed the timeline, already noticed that it was Tobi who atacked the Leaf, yet it was the real Madara (or so it seems) who Itachi confronted several year's later.
So "wot i think" is that what madara gained along with hashirama's power's (though, we don't know how much he gained himself) is also his lifeforce=longevity. As i said i know it seem's far fetched but it would explain that he lived for so goddamn long...
Long enough to unlock and master the rinnegan, long enough to create Tobi with it, and maybe Zetsu aswell, long enough to implant (or have Tobi implant) the rinnegan into Nagato. And finally even in death, still looked like his younger self.
Of course there are a few implications that this theory has, it would, for example, mean that SO6P himself lived for a freakishly long time, (being the source of this huge lifeforce) but i think it's a decent theory.
What do you guy's think?
I am not perfect and I defy you to prove otherwise
Growing Old Gracefully is an Oxymoron ... Mostly Moron !
Tobi is certainly a mysterious character. Personally the Madara split/zetsu theory seems a bit too much like what Kishi wants us to think so that when Tobi's identity is revealed we'll really be surprised. That's why the Izuna theory appeals to me, he's a character who's only been mentioned when the secret of how Madara regained the light in his eyes was revealed. Not much is really known about him apart from the obvious, and we assume that he died when his eyes were transplanted but there could always be more to it. Also when Naruto revealed to him that Kabuto had let the "other" Madara loose on the battlefield for all the world to see his reaction was interesting at first he was pissed off, then he tried to laugh it off as if by this stage it didn't matter as long as he completed the eye of the moon plan. To me the two brothers were cut from the same cloth just like Hashirama and Tobirama appeared to be, they both killed their closest friend to awaken the mangekyo sharingan, they pushed themselves to the limit to become stronger for battles which invariably saw them fight against the Senjuu. If Tobi is indeed Izuna then I hypothesise that incorporating hashirama cells/tissue into his body was what allowed him to cheat death and live for so long, as well as use zetsu spare parts and wield the rinnegan.
My theory about his warping ability is it's got to be sharingan + mask. He's already mentioned the mask is made of special materials. Perhaps he's used tobirama's space/time jutsu as an inspiration/starting point. If I'm wrong and it turns out the Madara split + Zetsu parts theory is correct I hope Kishi does a sterling job of explaining it to us.
I think that the man behind the mask is Izuna because when Tobi and Sasuke were talking in the cave, it seemed as if Tobi was using Itachi as a motive for Sasuke to turn on the village. Also when madara stealing his brothers eyes came up, Tobi became defensive and insisted that he gave them willingly.
How Izuna would have survived all these years, well Orochimaru searched for an immortality jutsu all his life, maybe Izuna discovered it, or he switches bodies like Oro.
With this manga I wouldn't be surprised it they introduced a new charecter
The key to all of this is NAgato. If Im not mistaken at the time Nagato was a kid and encountered Jiraya/Tsunade/Orochimaru. That time period the 1st was still alive at that time, now Im not sure if at this time period happened before or after Madara and the 1st fought. But I believe that the real MAdara knew of Nagato and may have even expected to be revived by him using Rinnengan power. Im not sure who Tobi is quite yet but there is one thing for sure theres a story there that ties in with these events.
Why does that matter? Because the third hokage was appointed hokage when hashirama's brother (the second hokage) sacrificed himself in battle to save his students. The second became hokage after hashirama died. The time of the first was wayyy before nagato was born. That's why madara knowing nagato is amazing because it tells us madara was alive AT LEAST 2 generations, likely 3, After the time believed to be his death. Him visiting tsuchikage was a big deal in itself as well because they thought him dead too.
Obito is Tobirama's great grandson. The proof is in the pudding.
well its narutoverse and death is nothing but an abstract notion. for all we know madara created tobi shortly after his battle with hashirama, then died but was summoned as a spirit somehow and told tobi what to do with his rinnegan eyes as the years passed by or maybe tobi was just supposed to be a vessel for madara but he got sidetracked. sure it might not be likely but its just as likely that the 3rd raikage had a "tough body" that were capable of resisting an attack on the atomic level, so this theory doesnt seem all that impossible.