Manga/Anime I read/have read/tried to read:
What chakra type are you?
i doubt its that teleportation jutsu, since it doesnt have a limited range and is anything but short range.
Though at the same time it could be possible that his power trades distance for control. The ability to phase your own body out of the current dimension to avoid attacks is a nice enough trade off.
On another note I find it strange that Madara knew about Kakashi's kamui and the fact that it wouldn't work on him meaning that Uchiha have probably been using space-time jutsu for a while.
Kamui is a long (probably can be used at short too, as Kakashi's sight dictates the range) range ninjutsu, this is true as when Naruto asked Kakashi if he has any long range jutsu to stop Daidera, he said that he has and used Kamui.