Great chapter! So much hype, this fight really escalated quickly.
1. Sasuke gained a Shar-Rinnegan in his left eye, complementary to how Naruto's newfound powers are channeled primarily through his right hand. Granted, there's more to their power-ups than that (Naruto also obtained an upgraded Bijuu cloak, the Rikudou's dark spheres, and some weapons). I'm sure Sasuke won't be limited to firing off jutsu from just one eye.
2. The tree gets chopped down, then speaks to Madara, and then gets absorbed, all in a couple of pages! I think it's probably Kaguya's voice... perhaps her soul was bound to the tree as punishment for eating the fruit? Who knows, maybe she was the one who, from within the tree, sent out the Ten Tails to recover its power. She wanted to be "One" with everything, as the new God Tree, and the Rikudou brothers defeated her and sealed the Ten Tails' power where she couldn't reach it.
3. I wonder how fast Naruto's powers will heal Guy. That looks incredibly painful.
4. Still can't get over how Naruto's lava-style Rasenshuriken cut the damn tree in half. I saw the Rasenshuriken in the early spoilers, but I didn't expect anything so extreme from it. I figured it'd just be a little more destructive than wind, with burning instead of cutting. My guess is Naruto's newfound strength was more to blame than the magma itself.
5. There appears to be some link between Naruto and Sasuke. I believe the Rikudou used Ninshuu to bind them in some way. He didn't just strengthen their Ashura/Indra chakra, but he bound them together more tightly.